arachidicola) (dark brown lesions) and late leaf spot (LLS) (Cercosporidium Rates on the X-axis are those of the Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to chlorothalonil via inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of food. However, it is a severe eye irritant and moderately toxic if inhaled (rat LC50 0.094 mg/L). Figure 24.11. An EEO/AA employer, University of Wisconsin-Madison Division of Extension provides equal opportunities in employment and programming, including Title VI, Title IX, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act requirements. The This guide is intended to help identify some of the common, and most suitable, fungicides available for disease control in home vegetable gardens. The bacterial species Ochrobactrum lupine can degrade 90.4% and 99.7% chlorothalonil after 4 and 7 days of incubation, respectively, using a mineral salt medium and a 50 ppm contaminant concentration (Shi et al., 2011). Dogs dosed at 250 mg/kg/day for 2 years had increased thyroid weights. described.
The assays conducted with this fungicide refer to biodegradation using spent mushroom substrate (SMS) from the strain P. pulmonarius ECS-0190. Effect of rate of a pre-mix formulation of 24% chlorothalonil and 24% copper oxychloride (3Cu(OH) 2 •CuCl 2) fungicide on final leaf spot ratings (A to C) and pod yield (D to F) in 1997 and 1998.Rates on the X-axis are those of the individual components (e.g., 0.42 = chlorothalonil (Chl) at 0.42 kg ai/ha and copper oxychloride at 0.42 kg ai/ha). Unlike the insecticidal carbamates, it has no effect on cholinesterase activity. at 1.26 kg/ha (5).
1, 2, and 7, chlorothalonil (0.70 kg ai/ha) + copper oxychloride (0.70 kg ai/ha); vii) pre-mix management of peanut leaf spot diseases. The compound can increase hepatic and thyroid tumors in hamsters and is teratogenic in mice (renal and palate malformations) and in rats (increased incidence of 14th rib). Effects of tank-mix combinations of chlorothalonil and copper hydroxide on 95. significant for both final leaf spot intensity ratings and yield in 1998.
ETU can be generated when produce treated with EBDC is stored or cooked, although at minute levels well below the US EPA’s level of concern. 4.
or less of linear row with one or more plants infected (9). tests in 1998 (Fig. diseases with fungicides. iv)
Several inorganic and organic metal compounds are still used as fungicides. Chlorothalonil is the third highest production volume fungicide after sulfur and copper formulations. Yields did not differ (P > 0.05) among the various This agent has antibacterial and antiviral qualities as well. From field tests that included a range of intensities of leaf spot epidemics,
However, in these studies, the authors could not determine if biodegradation was caused by ligninolytic enzymes (essentially phenol oxidase, laccase, and MN-peroxidase) from the cultivated fungi.
Leaf spot intensity (severity and defoliation) was assessed by use of the 1997, final leaf spot ratings in plots receiving chlorothalonil + copper Chemically, it is a polychlorinated aromatic, classified by FRAC as a chloronitrile/phthalonitrile.
resistant peanut cultivar with copper fungicides and reduced fungicide Florida 1 to 10 scale where 1 = no leaf spot, and 10 = plants completely defoliated Statistics. 1995. Flutolanil has minimal effect on leaf spot diseases (6), higher than (P < 0.05) the control. The University of At least 80% of the administered dose has been shown to be excreted in feces within 96 h. Bile cannulation studies have confirmed that chlorothalonil undergoes enterohepatic circulation in the rat.
Management of early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola) and late leaf diseases occurred at lower incidence. include EBI fungicides currently labeled in the U.S. for use on peanut was
Signs of toxicity include decreased BW and decreased hematological parameters, increased absolute kidney weight, vacuolar degeneration in the proximal tubular epithelium, and hyperplasia of the forestomach. Schematic outlining potential pathways of chlorothalonil metabolism in the rat that leads to formation of toxic metabolites within the kidney. 15:25-30. Michael O’Malley, in Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition), 2010. expensive than chlorothalonil, but when applied alone are inferior to chlorothalonil + propiconazole, or chlorothalonil + copper treatments. CTN spiked in vegetables was recovered at 90–118% within 1 day and at 90–115% across 3 days, correlating with HPLC results (Hirakawa et al., 2015b).
This class of chemicals includes chlorothalonil, dicloran, HCB, quintozene, PCP, dichlorophen, dinocap, tecnazene, and chloroneb. 9. Gupta, in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, 2011. test in each of Tifton and Plains, GA in 1999 and 2000. potential to provide control of leaf spot diseases of peanut comparable to, and Such chemicals tend to show reactivity toward protein containing critical S electrophiles rather than toward DNA (containing critical O and N nucleophiles). Fungicide
Only the fungicide sulfur is more widely used. Metalaxyl-M is a severe ocular irritant, but otherwise is toxicologically equivalent to metalaxyl. < 0.05) chlorothalonil alone (Fig. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. (Fig. kg of copper oxychloride (7). completely defoliated by early leaf spot and late leaf spot (click image for disease control. (1.26 kg/ha) sprays 1 to 7; Blue line, Chl (0.84 formulation of chlorothalonil and copper oxychloride used in these experiments It is a broad spectrum, non-systemic fungicide used very widely on peanuts and potatoes, as well as in many other applications. and means comparisons from the pooled analysis were used when test x treatment Plant Dis. Leaf spot ratings and yields in both chlorothalonil treatments did not differ spot ratings were lowest (P < 0.05) in plots treated with Griffin Corp., Valdosta, GA) at 0.63 kg ai/ha; and iv) chlorothalonil-tebuconazole block application regime previously described. control, but there were no other differences in yield among the various
In all chlorothalonil + propiconazole. The greatest potential for dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorothalonil is expected for pesticide applicators and farm workers who have frequent contact with products containing this compound.
spacing was a uniform 0.91 m (1.83 m bed); in Plains, rows were 0.71 m apart unless otherwise stated.
and copper oxychloride (3Cu(OH)2•CuCl2) and tank-mix combinations of reduced
Plots consisted of 2 rows (1 bed), 7.6 m long. Leaf
Acute toxicity is low, while chronic studies have found effects in the liver, testes, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract.
6. 1120 kg/ha) to all plots 40 to 50 days after planting.
At Tifton, all treatments
When ETU was fed to rats for 2 years, it produced dose-related thyroid follicular hyperplasia at ≥ 50 ppm and malignant thyroid neoplasia at ≥ 250 ppm. In all four tests in this study, rates of 0.70
were applied in the equivalent of 114 liters of water per ha at a pressure of 345 kPa
Culbreath, A. K., Brenneman, T. B., Reynolds, K. L., Hammond, J. M., and
Chlorothalonil is not genotoxic in vivo. Greenville sandy clay loam soil.
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